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The Symposia, 1933 — 2003

1969:   The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis, Vol. XXXIV

Organizer: John Cairns


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Foreword    v
List of Previous Volumes    viiiPhotographs of Some Symposium Participants    ixList of Those Attending the Symposium    xiiiZAMECNIK, P. C.: An Historical Account of Protein Synthesis, with Current Overtones-A Personalized View    1RIBOSOME STRUCTUREKURLAND, C. G., P. VOYNOW, S. J. S. HARDY, L. RANDALL, and L. LUTTER:Physical and Functional Heterogeneity of E. coli Ribosomes    17TRAUT, R. R., H. DELIUS, C. ARMAD-ZADEH, T. A. BICKLE, P. PEARSON, and A. TISSIÉRES: Ribosomal Proteins of E. coli: Stoichiometry and Implica tions for Ribosome Structure    25STAEHELIN, T., D. MAGLOTT, and R. E. MONRO: On the Catalytic Center of Peptidyl Transfer: A Part of the 50 S Ribosome Structure    39NOMURA, M., S. MIZUSHIMA, M. OZAKI, P. TRAUB, and C. V. LOWRY: Structure and Function of Ribosomes and their Molecular Components    49TRAUB, P., and M. NOMURA: Studies on the Assembly of Ribosomes in vitro    63 GUTHRIE, C., H NASHIMOTO, and M. NOMURA: Studies on the Assembly of Ribosomes in vivo    69SYPHERD, P. S., D. M. O'NEIL, and M. M. TAYLOR: The Chemical and Genetic Structure of Bacterial Ribosomes    77SMITH, I., C. GOLDTHWAITE, and D. DUBNAU: The Genetics of Ribosomes in Bacillus subtilis    85SMITH, F. A., and R. HASELKORN: Proteins Associated with Ribosomes in T4- infected E. coli    91BOLLEN, A., T. HELSER, T. YAMADA, and J. DAVIES: Altered Ribosomes in Antibiotic-Resistant Mutants of E. coli    95GORINI, L. C.: The Contrasting Role of strA and ram Gene Products in Ribo- somal Functioning    101MODOLELL, J., and B. D. DAVIS: A Unitary Mechanism for the Several Effects of Streptomycin on the Ribosome    113AFIRION, D., S. L. PHILLIPS, and D. SCHLESSINGER: Approaches to the Genetics of E. coli Ribosomes    117CRAVEN, G. R., R. GAVIN, and T. FANNING: The Transfer RNA Binding Site of the 30 S Ribosome and the Site of Tetracycline Inhibition    129MONIER, R., J. FEUNTEUN, B. FORGET, B. JORDAN, M. REYNIER, and F. VARRICCHIO: 5 S RNA and the Assembly of Bacterial Ribosomes    139STRUCTURE AND BINDING OF tRNABOCK, R. M., J. D. YOUNG, M. LABANAUSKAS, and P. G. CONNORS: X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Crystalline Transfer RNA    149KIM, S-H., P. SCHOFIELL, and A. RICH: Transfer RNA Crystals Studied by X-Ray Diffraction    153DUBE, S. K., P. S. RUDLAND, B. F. C. CLARK, and K. A. MARCKER: A Structural Requirement for Codon-Anticodon Interaction on the Ribosome    161KAJI, A., K. IGARASHI, and H. ISHITSUKA: Interaction of tRNA with Ribosomes Binding and Release of tRNA    167 SWAN, D., G. SANDER, E. BERMEK, W. KRAMER, T. KREUZER, C. ARGLEBE,R. ZÖLLNER, K. ECKERT, and H. MATTHAEI: On the Mechanism of Coded Bihding of Aminoacyl-tRNA to Ribosomes: Number and Properties of Sites    179RIBOSOME CYCLINGSPIRIN, A. S.: A Model of the Functioning Ribosome: Locking and Unlocking of The Ribosome Subparticles    197KAEMPFER, R., and M. MESELSON: Studies of Ribosomal Subunit Exchange    209SUBRAMANIAN, A. R., B. D. DAVIS, and R. J. BELLER: The Ribosome Dissoci- ation Factor and the Ribosome-Polysome Cycle    223SCHLESSINGER, D., C. GURGO, L. LUZZATTO, and D. APIRION: Polyribosome Metabolism in Growing and Nongrowing E. coli    231PHILLIPS, L. A., and R. M. FRANKLIN: The in vivo Distribution of Bacterial Polysomes, Ribosomes, and Ribosomal Subunits    243FRIEDMAN, H., P. LU, and A. RICH: An in vivo Block in the Initiation of Protein Synthesis    255INITIATIONREVEL, M., M. HERZBERG, and H. GREENSHPAN: Initiator Protein Dependent Binding of Messenger RNA to the Ribosome    261THACH, R. E., J. W. B. HERSHEY, D. KOLAKOFSKY, K. F. DEWEY, and E. REMOLD-O'DONNELL: Purification and Properties of Initiation Factors F1 and F2    277WAHBA, A. J., Y. B. CHAE, K. IWASAKI, R. MAZUMDER, M. J. MILLER, S. SABOL, and M. A. G. SILLERO: Initiation of Protein Synthesis in E. coli-I. Puri- fication and Properties of the Initiation Factors    285WAHBA, A. J., K. IWASAKI, M. J. MILLER, S. SABOL, M. A. G. SILLERO, and C. VASQUEZ: Initiation of Protein Synthesis in E. coli-II. Role of the Initiation Factors in Polypeptide Synthesis    291DUBNOFF, J. S., and U. MAITRA: Protein Factors Involved in Polypeptide Chain Initiation in E. coli    301BRAWERMAN, G.: Role of Initiation Factors in the Translation of Messenger RNA    307WILSON, D. B., and H. DINTZIS: Initiation of the Alpha Chain of Rabbit Hemo- globin    313TRANSLOCATION AND ELONGATIONRAVEL, J. M., R. L. SHOREY, C. W. GARNER, R. C. DAWKINS, and W. SHIVE:The Role of an Aminoacyl-tRNA-GTP-Protein Complex in Polypeptide Synthesis    321HARDESTY, B., W. CULP, and W. MCKEEHAN: The Sequence of Reactions Leading to the Synthesis of a Peptide Bond on Reticulocyte Ribosomes    331MOLDAVE, K. W. GALASINKI, P. RAO, and J. SILER: Studies on the Peptidyl tRNA Translocase from Rat Liver    347MONRO, R. E., T. STAEHELIN, M. L. CELMA, and D. VAZQUEZ: The Peptidyl Transferase Activity of Ribosomes    357VAZQUEZ, D., E. BATTANER, R. NETH, G. HELLER, and R. E. MONRO: The Function of 80 S Ribosomal Subunits and Effects of Some Antibiotics    369PARMEGGIANI, A., and E. M. GOTTSCHALK: Isolation and Some Properties of the Amino Acid Polymerization Factors from E. coli    377KAZIRO, Y., N. INOUE, Y. KURIKI, K. MIZUMATO, M. TANAKA, and M. KAWAKITA: Purification and Properties of Factor G    385PESTKA, S.: Translocation, Aminoacyl-Oligonucleotides, and Antibiotic Actio    395 LEDER, P., A. BERNARDI, D. LIVINGSTONE, B. LOYD, D. ROUFA, and L.SKOGERSON: Protein Biosynthesis: Studies Using Synthetic and Viral mRNAs    411WEISSBACH, H., N. BROT, D. MILLER, M. ROSMAN, and R. ERTEL: Interaction of Guanosine Triphosphate with E. coli Soluble Transfer Factors    419LOCKWOOD, A. H., S. HATTMAN, and U. MAITRA: The Nature of T-Factor- Guanine Nucleotide Complexes    433SKOULTCHI, A., Y. ONO, J. WATERSON, and P. LENGYEL: Peptide Chain Elongation    437LUCAS-LENARD, J., P. TAO, and A.-L. HAENNI: Further Studies on Bacterial Polypeptide Elongation    455

TOCCHINI-VALENTINI, G. P., L. FELLICETTI, and G. M. RINALDI: Mutants of E. coli Blocked in Protein Synthesis: Mutants with an Altered G Factor    463


CAPECCHI, M. R., and H. A. KLEIN: Characterization of Three Proteins Involved in Polypeptide Chain Termination    469

CASKEY, T., E. SCOLNICK, R. TOMKINS, J. GOLDSTEIN, and G. MILMAN: Peptide Chain Termination, Codon, Protein Factor, and Ribosomal Requirements    479

CHAPEVILLE, F., P. YOT, and D. PAULIN: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of N-Acyl Aminoacyl tRNAs    493

PHILLIPS, S. L., D. SCHLESSINGER, and D. APIRION: Temperature-Dependent Suppression of UGA and UAA Codons in a Temperature-Sensitive Mutant of E .coli    499

CARBON, J., C. SQUIRES, and C. W. HILL: Genetically Altered tRNAGLY Sub- species in E. coli    505

SALSER, W., M. FLUCK, and R. EPSTEIN: The Influence of the Reading Context Upon the Suppression of Nonsense Codons, III    513

WILCOX, M.: g-Phosphoryl Ester of Glu~tRNAGLN as an Intermediate in Bacillus subtilis Glutaminyl-tRNA Synthesis    521

SOFFER, R. L., H. HORINISHI, and M. J. LEIBOWITZ: The Aminoacyl tRNA- Protein Transferases    529


PENMAN, S., C. VESCO, R. WEINBERG, and E. ZYLBER: The RNA Metabolism of Nucleoli and Mitochondria in Mammalian Cells    535

ADAMSON, S. D., G. A. HOWARD, and E. HERBERT: The Ribosome Cycle in a Reconstituted Cell-Free System from Reticulocytes    547

BAGLIONI, C., C. VESCO, and M. JACOBS-LORENA: The Role of Ribosomal Sub- units in Mammalian Cells    555

RABINOVITZ, M., M. L. FREEDMAN, J. M. FISHER, and C. R. MAXWELL: Trans- lational Control in Hemoglobin Synthesis    567

HUNT, J. A., and D. G. LAYCOCK: Characterization of Messenger RNA for Hemo- globin    579

ANDERSON, W. F., and J. M. GILBERT: Translational Control of in vitro Hemo- globin Synthesi    585

COLLIER, R. J., and J. A. TRAUGH: Inactivation of Aminoacyl Transferase II by Diphtheria Toxin    589

GILL, D. M., A. M. PAPPENHEIMER, JR., and J. B. BASEMAN: Studies on Trans- ferase II Using Diphtheria Toxin    595

HONJO, T., Y. NISHIZUKA, O. HAYAISHI: Adenosine Diphosphoribosylation of Aminoacyl Transferase II by Diphtheria Toxin    603

GOOR, R. S., and E. S. MAXWELL: A Proposed Mechanism for ADP Ribosylation of Aminoacyl Transferase II by Diphtheria Toxin    609


ADAMS, J. M., P. G. N. JEPPESEN, F. SANGER, and B. G. BARRELL: Nucleotide Sequences from Fragments of R17 Bacteriophage RNA    611

STEITZ, J. A.: Nucleotide Sequences of the Ribosomal Binding Sites of Bacteriophage R17 RNA    621

BILLETER, M. A., J. E. DAHLBERG, H. M. GOODMAN, J. HINDLEY, and C. WEISSMAN: Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of an Enzymatically Synthesized RNA Corresponding to the 5¢-Terminal Region of Qb RNA    635

HO, N. W. Y., T. UCHIDA, F. EGAMI, and P. T. GILHAM: A New Cleavage Method for the Study of Nucleotide Sequences in RNA    647


BRETSCHER, M. S.: Ribosome Initiation and the Mode of Action of Neomycin in the Direct Translation of Single-Stranded fd DNA    651

LODISH, H. F., and H. D. ROBERTSON: Regulation of in vitro Translation of Bacteriophage f2 RNA    655

WEBSTER, R. E., H. D. ROBERTSON, and N. D. ZINDER: The 5¢-Terminus of f2 RNA and the Coat Protein Gene    675

SUGIYAMA, T.: Translational Control of M52 RNA Cistrons    687

FIERS, W., M. VAN MONTAGU, R. DE WACHTER, G. HAEGEMAN, W. MIN JOU, E. MISSENS, E. REMAUT, A. VANDENBERGHE, and B. VAN STYVENDAELE: Studies on the Primary Structure and the Replication Mechanism of Bacteriophage RNA    697

GESTELAND, R. F., and P. F. SPAHR: Translation of R-17 RNA fragments    707

KEDES, L. H., B. HOGAN, G. COGNETTI, S. SELVIG, P. YANOVER and P. R. GROSS: Regulation of Translation and Transcription of Messenger RNA During Early Embryonic Development    717

MORSE, D. E., R. D. MOSTELLER, and C. YANOFSKY: Dynamics of Synthesis, Translation, and Degradation of trp Operon mRNA in E. coli    725

BALTIMORE, D., M. F. JACOBSON, J. ASSO, and A. S. HUANG: The Formation of Poliovirus Proteins    741

REKOSH, D., H. F. LODISH, and D. BALTIMORE: Translation of Poliovirus RNA by an E. coli Cell-Free System    747

ZUBAY, G., and D. A. CHAMBERS: A DNA-Directed Cell-Free System for fi- Galactosidase Synthesis; Characterization of the de novo synthesized Enzyme and Some Aspects of the Regulation of Synthesis    753

SCHWEIGER, M., and L. M. GOLD: DNA-Dependent in vitro Synthesis of Bacterio- phage Enzymes    763

SALSER, W., R. F. GESTELAND, and B. RICARD: Characterization of Lysozyme Messenger and Lysozyme Synthesized in vitro    771

NISHIZUKA, Y., K. UEDA, K. YOSHIHARA, H. YAMAMURA, M. TAKEDA, and O. HAYAISHI: Enzymic Adenosine Diphosphoribosylation of Nuclear Proteins    781

ILAN, J.: The Role of tRNA in Translational Control of Specific mRNA During Insect Metamorphosis    787

WILHELM, J. M., and R. HASELKORN: In vitro Synthesis of T4 Proteins: Lysozyme and the Products of Genes 22 and 57    793

HEYWOOD, S. M.: Synthesis of Myosin on Heterologous Ribosomes    799

KLEINKAUF, H., and W. GEVERS: Nonribosomal Polypeptide Synthesis: The Biosynthesis of Cyclic Peptide Antibiotic, Gramicidin S    805

KURAHASHI, K., M. YAMADA, K. MORI, K. FUJIKAWA, M. KAMBE, Y. IMAE, E. SATO, H. TAKAHASHI, and Y. SAKAMOTO: Biosynthesis of Cyclic Oligo- peptide    815

LENGYEL, P.: Summary    827